1. (Thomas Lawton, November 25, 1975) Jade finial LTS1985.1.276.1: Han 漢 dynasty, 206 BCE--220 AD; Jade fitting LTS1985.1.276.2: Han 漢 dynasty, 206 BCE--220 AD; Jade fitting LTS1985.1.276.3: Eastern Chou [Zhou] 周, 8th--3rd century BCE.
Jade carvings of this type were recently discussed by Doris J. Dohrenwend, in an article titled "Jade Demonic Images from Early China," published in Ars Orientalis 10 (1975), pp. 55--78. The dates following each of the accession numbers above are those assigned by Miss Dohrenwend. You will note that Salmony dates all three pieces to Early Eastern Chou [Zhou] 周. The Han 漢 dates suggested for LTS1985.1.276.1 and LTS1985.1.276.2 by Dohrenwend seem a little late to me, but she had just finished working with related material and may well be correct.
2. (Hayashi Minao 林巳奈夫, June 10, 1980) Very rare and very ancient. Pre-Shang 商 period, before 1500 BCE. This early date is also held by Jessica Rawson of the British Museum, Department of Oriental Antiquities.
3. (Fu Xinian 傅熹年, November 23, 1987) Attributed to Longshan 龍山 culture, Shantung [Shandong] 山東 province, Neolithic period (ca. 2500--1800 BCE).
4. (Thomas Lawton, July 28, 1988) Attribution was changed to "Longshan 龍山 culture, late Neolithic period, ca.
2900--1800 BCE, Shantung [Shandong] 山東 province, China."
5. (Wangping Shao 邵望平, November 1, 1989) LTS1985.1.276.1, along with the related jades LTS1985.1.276.2, LTS1985.1.276.3, and S1987.880, may be associated with the other Liangzhu 良渚 cultural material remains. LTS1985.1.276.3 is the most typical of that culture's jade work tradition.
Though similar objects have been found in Shandong 山東 province, the main examples are from the Liangzhu 良渚 region. The Liangzhu 良渚 cultural phase may be said to be contemporary with and a part of the greater Longshan 龍山 culture.
Although the Liangzhu 良渚 cultural traditions seem to have lasted from about 3000 BCE down to 1000 BCE, Miss Shao 邵 feels that these four jades most likely date to the end of that tradition (during the latter part of the Shang 商 dynasty).
6. (Jeffrey Smith per Keith Wilson, August 22, 2008) Jewelry and Ornament added as secondary classification.
7. (Jeffrey Smith per Janet Douglas, June 17, 2010) Nephrite added as modifier to existing medium of "jade" based on conservation analysis.
8. (Najiba Choudhury per Keith Wilson, August 16, 2016) Changed "Longshan culture" to "Shijiahe culture", changed object date from "ca. 2900 BCE - ca. 1800 BCE" to "ca. 2500 - ca. 2000 BCE", changed geography from "Shangdong province" to "Middle Yangzi valley, Hubei province", and changed object title from "Ornaments with masks" to "Ornament (shi 飾) with mask and headdress"
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