1. Bought from Seaouke Yue [You Xiaoxi] 游筱溪, of Shanghai 上海, in New York. For price, see Original Miscellaneous List, p. 287. $230.
2. (Undated Folder Sheet note) Original attribution: Chinese. Shang 商. See further, S.I. 1286, Appendix VIII. Excavated in Anki [Anxi] 安溪 in Chekiang [Zhejiang] 浙江 province.
3. (Archibald Gibson Wenley, 1945) Chou [Zhou] 周 dynasty.
4. (Isabel Ingram Mayer, 1946) The device is in the form of a bird on a goblet shaped perch above a shield shaped base in the center of which is a character or symbol in the form of an oval with two vertical lines. Cf. device on F1917.79, which is very similar, differing in the field decoration; also device on F1917.348, where the goblet shaped form is missing. See also devices on F1919.58 and F1917.385 for variations.
5. (Undated Folder Sheet note) Sp. G. is 3.008. Nephrite.
6. (Thomas Lawton, 1978) Western Chou [Zhou] 周.
7. (Julia K. Murray, 1980) From Ancient Chinese Jade exhibition label: Attribution changed from Western Chou [Zhou] 周 to Neolithic, ca. 2000 BCE, traditional Chekiang [Zhejiang] 浙江 provenance.
8. (Julia K. Murray, 1983) The enigmatic emblems that are lightly incised on one side of this pi [bi] 璧 and on three other pi [bi] 璧 in the Freer Collection (F1917.79, F1917.348, and F1919.58) are identified by Hayashi Minao 林巳奈夫 with the Liang chu [Liangzhu] 良渚 culture, which flourished in Kiangsu [Jiangsu] 江蘇 and Chekiang [Zhejiang] 浙江 provinces during the 3rd millennium BCE (see Hayashi Minao 林巳奈夫, "Ryōsho bunka no gyokki jakkan o megutte 良渚文化の玉器若干をめぐって = Jade of the Liang-chu Culture," Museum 360 (1981), pp. 22--33). In style and concept they also relate to the two motifs on the tall jade ring F1917.385. The appearance of incised decoration and the unusually careful workmanship on these jades suggest that they were ceremonial pieces of great value and importance. See Folder Sheet F1917.19 for a discussion of pi [bi] 璧.
9. (Undated Folder Sheet note) See F1917.79 no. 12.
10. (Stephen Allee per Keith Wilson, February 26, 2008) On this date entered: Period One (Late Neolithic period), Date (ca. 5000--ca. 1700 BCE), Artist (Liangzhu 良渚 culture), Title, Object name, Geographical region (Lake Tai 太湖 region); plus Description per Jenny F. So and Dimensions per Christine Lee, from Jade Project Database.
11. (Jeffrey Smith per Keith Wilson, July 17, 2008) Ceremonial Objects added as secondary classification.
12. (Jeffrey Smith per Janet Douglas, May 12, 2010) Nephrite added as modifier to existing medium of "jade" based on conservation analysis.
13. (Jeffrey Smith, April 7, 2016) Transferred from Description: Mottled green, yellow, tan, and brown. Biconical hole, centered on emblem face, off-center on opposite face, with ridge at meeting point. Evenly round, slight damage at rim, veritcal wall of outer edge gently concave. Surface: Incised emblem of bird on goblet-like pedestal set on top of shield-shape with stepped top. An oval marked by two lines occupies the center of the shield (cf. incomplete emblem on 19.58). Incisions neatly and confidently executed (unlike F1917.79 and F1917.348).
Perforated disc of the type "bi." Bored from both sides leaving median ridge. Obverse of mottled rich greens, blue and dull yellow, some deep red veins and tan strata cracks. Reverse of mottled olive brown, olive green and some yellow, tan strata cracks. Light frosting of incipient disintegration, more pronounced on reverse. Decoration: lightly incised, a bird device. (Rim broken and chipped.) Box.