1. (September, 1983 -- from an exhibition label: Studies in Connoisseurship: 1923-1983) Chinese descriptions of Sung dynasty wares place special emphasis upon the types of crackle and the colors of the glaze. Consequently, Western collectors of Chinese ceramics sought pieces whose glazes suggested that they were products of the famous Sung kilns; when Charles Lang Freer purchased this vase in Peking in 1911, he believed it to be a Sung example of Ko ware [char].
Doubts about the early date of the piece were expressed by John E. Lodge, the first director of the Freer Gallery, in 1922 as he prepared the collection for the inaugural exhibition. Lodge proposed a Ch'ing dynasty date for the vase without giving specific reasons for his attribution.
Recent research on Ch'ing dynasty ceramics has emphasized the antiquarian tastes which flourished in the 18th century and which resulted in a revival of many Sung dynasty wares, produced at Ching-te Chen [char], Kiangsi Province. The shape of the Freer vase, based on an ancient jade tsung [char] can be identified as an 18th century archaistic piece on the basis of its general heaviness, the foot rim dressed with a brown slip, the unctuous quality of the glaze, and the absence of a crackle consistent with Sung dynasty wares. On the basis of these characteristics, the original designation of the vase has been changed from Ko ware to Kuan [char] type ware.