Ceramics in Mainland Southeast Asia

Stoneware draw tests used for judging the temperature in a wood-fired kiln. Placed on the kiln floor beneath the chimney, the tests are drawn out at intervals as the end of the firing seems near, using a hook on the end of a long iron pole. Ban Pon Bok, Pon Phisai district, Nong Khai province, Northeast Thailand, 1990. Photograph by Louise Allison Cort.



Period Time
Han-Viet period
Giao Chi period
Early Ly dynasty/Van Xuan period
An Nan period

Administrative center in Hanoi

Khuk dynasty
Ngo dynasty
Twelve Warlords period
Dinh dynasty

Dai Co Viet kingdom founded

Early Le dynasty
Ly dynasty

Capital at Thang Long (Hanoi)

Ly name their polity Dai Viet kingdom – 1054

Southern boundry at Ha Tinh province – 1100

Tran dynasty
capital at Thang Long (Hanoi)

Tran absorb lands from Hai Van Pass to Indrapura – 1306

Ho dynasty
capital at Thanh Nghe (Nghe An, Ha Tinh, and Thanh Hoa)
Ming Chinese rule
Later Le dynasty
capital at Thang Long (Hanoi)

Later Le raze Vijaya – 1471

Southern boundary at Gia Lai/Phu Yen provinces – 1475

Later Le expand into western hills – 1479

Mac dynasty
capital at Dong Kinh (Hanoi)

dispute with Le shrinks territory: new southern boundary at Red River, Thanh Hoa – 1539

Restored Later Le dynasty

Thanh Hoa claims Le figurehead as legitimate – 1533

Northern boundary at Thanh Hoa, southern boundary at Gia Lai/Phu Yen provinces – 1539

Trinh Lords period (North)

Capital at Hanoi

southern boundary at Dong Hoi, Quang Binh province

Nguyen Lords period (South)

southern boundary at Gia Lai/Phu Yen provinces

southern boundary at Dak Nong (Lam Dong/Binh Thuan provinces) – 1650

territory includes Mekong delta provinces – 1760

Tay Son dynasty
Nguyen dynasty
French colonial rule


Period Time
Lin yi
Northern period — ca. 137–446

Southern period — 446–785

Early Southern period
territory concentrated around epicenters at Panduranga (around Phan Rang) and Kauthara (Nha Trang)

capital at Indrapura (Thu Bon valley region)

northern border at Quang Binh province

Champa trades Hoan and Ai provinces to Ly dynasty — 1076

Khmer conquest of Indrapura — 1190

capital at Vijaya (near Bind Dinh/Quy Nhom)

Khmer occupy Northern Champa — ca. 1190–1210

Champa trades O and Ly provinces to Tran — 1306

Cham incursion into southern Tran lands — 1360–1390

Ho dynasty absorbs parts of Quang Nam and Quang Ngai — 1402

Later Le conquest of Vijaya — 1471

Later Southern period

epicenters at Panduranga and Kauthara

northern border just south of Quy Nhon — 1600

northern border at the mouth of the Da Rang river — 1611

Panduranga period
Vietnamese stop referring to "Chiem Thanh" — 1692

Vietnam absorbs remaining Cham territories — 1832



Period Time
Angkor period
capital at Hariharalaya (modern day Rolous)

capital moved to Yasodharapura (Angkor) – 889

territory included northeast Thailand (Khorat plateau), Kampong Svay, and the Mekong delta – 889

capital moved to Chok Gyargar (Koh Ker) – 928

capital moved to Yasodharapura – 944

Angkor absorbed Lavo (Lopburi) – 1010–1050

Lavo bid for independance – ca. 1155-1181

Angkorian presence in Ping Valley (north of Nakhon Sawan) – ca. 1175

Angkor occupation of Champa – ca. 1190–1210

territory included much of Thailand and Southen Laos – ca. 1200

Khmer influence waned in Chao Phraya basin – by 1220

much of present-day Thailand independant from Khmer Angkor period rule – by 1250

Pre-Angkor period
Kingdom of ”Funan” – 200–600

territory included southern Cambodia through Kompong Cham

Post-Angkor period
capitals at Lovek, Phnom Penh, and Udong

Angkor area still a metropolis for Khmer people

Thai occupy capital of Lovek – 1594

Vietnamese absorb Saigon area lands – ca. 1620

Vietnamese absorb territory bordering the Gulf of Siam – ca. early/mid 18th c.

Taksin occupies Battambang and Siem Reap, where they remain under Bangkok suzerainty – 1768–1830s

capital moves to Phnom Penh – 1812

Vietnamese suzerainty in Cambodia – 1830s–1847

boundaries at Kompong Svay, Kratie, Pursat, Ba Phnom, Bati, Mekong, and points south of Chhlong – 1840s–1863

French colonial rule


Period Time
Muang Sua

Capital at Xieng Dong Xieng Thong (Luang Prabang)

Muang Sua occupied by Nanzhao – 701–ca. 877

Occupation by Khmer – 1185–1191


Capital at Chiang Saen

Territory includes South China, North Thailand, and Northwest Laos

Lan Na absorbs Yonok – 1259

Lan Sang period

Capital at Luang Prabang – 1353

Territory includes Sipsong Phan Na and Nam U valley, North Khorat plateau, and possibly as far south as Roi Et and Chi Rivers – ca. 1360

Capital moves to Viang Chan (Vientaine) – 1564

Toungoo incursion into Laos – 1564–85

Toungoo occupies Lan Sang – 1569–70

Toungoo occupation of Laos – 1575–85

Border stretches form Lo Phi in south to Pha Dai in north, and Ayutthaya to Vietnam – 1656

Three Kingdoms period
Luang Prabang period

Capital at Luang Prabang

Kon-baung occupies Luang Prabang – 1765

Bangkok incorporates Luang Prabang as a principality – 1778

Under Bangkok Suzerainty,Viang Chan annexes Luang Prabang, as well as Hauphan and Sipson Chu Tai – 1792–96

Luang Prabang absorbs Siang Khwang – ca. 1830s

Viang Chan (Vientaine) period

Capital at Viang Chan (Vientiane)

Bangkok incorporates Viang Chan (Vientiane) as a principality – 1778

Lao war for independence from Bangkok – 1826–1828

Champassak period

Capital at Champassak

Territory includes lands south of the Xe Bang Hiang river to Stung Treng, and the Lower Mun and Chi river valleys (Lower Khorat plateau)

Bangkok incorpates Champassak as a principality – 1778

Capital moves to Pakxe – 1791

Lao war for independence from Bangkok – 1826–28





Period Time
Ban Chiang culture
Dvaravati period
territory in the Lower Chao Phraya valley
Haripunjaya period

Capital at Lamphun

Haripunjaya absorbed by Lan Na – 1281

Ban Prasat culture
Period of muang pluralism
Lan Na period

capital at Chiang Saen Lan Na absorbs Yonok – 1259

capital moves to Chiang Rai – 1262

Lan Na absorbs Phayao – 1276

Lan Na absorbs Haripunjaya – 1281

capital moves to Chiang Mai – 1292/96

Lan Na absorbs Tak – 1321

territory included NW Laos, Man U Valley, Lumphun, and parts of Xianyaburi province – pre-1400

Toungoo occupies Lan Na – 1578–1772

Chakri kings absorb Lan Na – 1774

Sukhothai period

capital at Sukhothai

territory incluldes Sawankhalok, Uttaradit, Kamphaengphet and Tak – 1279

Sukhothai absorbs Suphanburi – 1292

territory includes Phitsanulok, Lom Sak, Viang Chan, Nakhon Sawan, Ratchaburi, Phetburi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phrae Nan and Luang Prabang – ca. 1317

Sukhothai reduced to regional importance – ca. 1320

Sukhothai accepts Ayutthayan suzerainty – 1378

Ayutthaya imposes legal system on Sukhothai – 1396

Sukhothai reduced to vassal of Ayutthaya – 1412

capital moves to Phitsanulok – 1460

Ayutthaya annexes Sukhothai as province – 1438

Ayutthaya period

capital at Ayutthaya

territory includes Suphanburi and Lopburi — ca. 1360

Ayutthaya absorbs Sukhothai — 1378–1438

territory includes Nakhon Sawan, Phitsanulok, and Kamphaengphet — by 1378

Sukhothai accepts Ayutthayan suzerainty — 1378

Ayutthaya absorbs Lampang — 1386

Ayutthaya absorbs Nan — 1396

capital temporarily moves to Phitsanulok — 1463–1488

Ayutthaya absorbs Tenasserim — ca. 1460s

Ayutthaya absorbs Tavoy — 1488

territory includes entire Chao Phraya valley — ca. 1500

Toungoo occupation of Ayutthaya — 1569–1581

Ayutthaya occopies Lovek — 1596

Ayutthaya absorbs Tenasserim and Tavoy — ca. 1600

Ayutthaya absorbs Martaban, Rangoon, Pegu, and Mergui — 1662

Burmeze raze Ayutthaya — 1767

Five Interim Power Centers period

Nakhon Ratchasima

Fang/Sawangkhaburi (East of Nan river)

Phitsanulok Sawngkhaburi absorbs Phitsanulok — 1770

Nakhon Si Thammarat–territory includes land South of Chumpon

Thonburi – territory ruled by Taksin

Taksin Unification period

capital at Thonburi Taksin absorbs Battambang and Siem Reap — 1770

Lan Na joins Taksin in forcing Kon-baung from North — 1774

Kon-baung occupies territory from Phitsanulok to Chiang Mai — 1775–1776

Laos and NE Thailand accept Thai suzerainty — 1778

Rebellion in Ayutthaya province ignites the collapse of Taksin's rule and the installation of the Chakri kings at Bangkok — 1782

Bangkok period

Capital at Bangkok

territory includes the Khorat plateau, Laos, Cambodia, Nakhon Si Thammarat, and Buriram — by 1809



Period Time
Pyu period
Pagan period

Capital at Pagan
Territory includes upper Irrawaddy and headwaters of Salween – ca. 1050
Anaw-rahta occupies Thaton – 1057*
Territory includes Chin, Kachin, Shan hills,
Tenasserim, and the northernmost Irrawaddy valley – ca. 13th c.


Ava period

Capital at Ava

Territory includes upper Irrawaddy to Northeastern hills

Shans occupation of Ava city – 1275

Prome and Toungoo become fully independent – ca. 1450

Toungoo Dynasty

Epicenter in Sittang valley — as early as 1279

Expansion into dry zone — 1486–1550

Toungoo absorb Kyaukse (from Ava) — 1503

Toungoo expansion into lower Burma — 1531–50

Pegu, Martaban, and Prome absorbed by Toungoo — 1539

Capital moved to Pegu — 1539

Toungoo unifies North and South Burma — 1551–81

Territory includes parts of Manipur and entire Shan state (Mogaung, Mong Mit, Hsipaw) — 1555–59

Toungoo reduces Lan Na to vassal state — 1564

Ayutthaya, Laos, Lan Na occupied by Toungoo — 1569

Territory includes Manipur to Cambodia and Yunnan to Arakan — 1569–84

Collapse of Toungoo — 1584–99
  Ayutthaya declares independence — 1581
  Pegu occupied by Arakan with local
  assistance — 1599

Restored Toungoo dynasty
Capital at Ava — 1613                          

Capital moved to Amarapura and Mandalay — 1635

Territory included Arakan Mts. to Kenghung and Chiang Mai, and Mogaung to Tavoy — 1620–1752

Ava occupation by Pegu signals end of Tuongoo — 1751
Kon-baung period

Capital at Ava

Pegu absorbed by Kon-baung — 1757

Kon-baung absorb Martaban, Tavoy, Tenasserim, Kiu Phetburi, and Ratburi — 1760

Lan Na independence from Burmese — 1761

Kon-baung occupation of Chiang Mai and Lamphun — 1763–64

Kon-baung occupation of Lan Na and Luang Prabang — 1765

Manipur absorbed by Kon-baung — 1813

Assam absorbed by Kon-baung — 1819

First Anglo-Burmese war — 1824–26
  British assume control of Assam, Manipur,
  Arakan, and Tenasserim

Second Anglo-Burmese war — 1852
  British assume control of Irrawaddy delta

Capital moved to Mandalay — 1859

Third Anglo-Burmese war  — 1885
  British assume control of Upper Burma

Pegu period
Colonial period

Burma administered as a province of British India — 1886–1937

Burma became a self-governing British colony



Period Time
Han Dynasty
Period of Division

Also known as the Three Kingdoms period

Qing dynasty

Shunzhi reign: 1644–1661
Kingxi reign: 1662–1722
Yongzheng reign: 1723–1735
Qianlong reign: 1735–1796
Jiaqing reign: 1796–1820
Daoguang reign: 1821–1850
Xianfeng reign: 1851–1861
Tongzhi reign: 1862–1874
Guangxu reign: 1875–1908
Xuantong reign: 1909–1912

Ming dynasty

Hongwu reign: 1368–98
Jianwen reign: 1399–1402
Yongle reign: 1403–24
Xuande reign: 1426–35
Zhengtong reign: 1436–49
Jingtai reign: 1450–56
Tianshun reign: 1457–64
Chenghua reign: 1465–87
Hongzhi reign: 1488–1505
Zhengde reign: 1506–21
Jiajing reign: 1522–66
Longqing reign: 1567–72
Wanli reign: 1573–1620
Tianqi reign: 1621–27
Chongzhen reign: 1628–44

Yuan dynasty
Song dynasty
Five Dynasties period
Tang dynasty
Sui dynasty
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